Why a Carrier Oil
A Look at Carrier Oils
Essential oils are irritants on the skin. Carrier oils (lipid/fatty oils) are used in conjunction with essential oils in Aromatherapy to dilute essential oils to a safe topical level to protect the skin. Carrier oils are also ingestible and often used in cooking and food preparation. When we say dilute, to be clear, it does not dilute the actions of the oil(s). Carrier oils are non-volatile, the opposite of essential oils. They do not have the safety concerns that essential oils present.
Briefly, carrier oils are non-volatile. A volatile organic compound (VOC) is defined by the EPA as “any compound of carbon” and includes essential oils. Although few essential oils constituents have been implemented, long term exposure to moderate mixtures of terpenes entails possible health risks.
However, carrier oils are non-volatile, we use many in our cooking. Many carriers have remarkable therapeutic properties externally and internally. Not only do they keep our skin safe when using essential oils, they can also enhance the therapeutic effect of essential oils on the skin.
Should I buy Refined or Unrefined carrier oils?
Carrier oils, also known as fatty or lipid oils, can be purchased unrefined or refined. This defines the amount of processing the oil will go through. Unrefined oils are the most sought for carrier oils. There is minimal processing involved which ensures a higher quality oil rich in nutrients. Unrefined gives the true color and flavor of the oil as well as the aroma. The downfall to unrefined oils is often there less stable than refined oils. This means that your oil will go rancid more quickly. This could shorten the shelf life of the final product you make. The shelf life is based on the ingredients in your product. The ingredient with the shortest shelf life, be it essential oils or the carriers, will be the shelf life of the product.
Some oils that are unrefined carry a strong color or smell (ex.: Avocado, Neem) and overpowers other ingredients including essential oils when blended. Some don’t care for the strong aroma. Unrefined Shea butter has a very distinctive aroma that some people like and some don’t care for. It’s unique to the individual, as is essential oils.
Because of the further processing that refined oils go through, there are fewer active compounds in the oil than unrefined oils. The further processing removes and damages some therapeutic compounds. I’ve found that refined oils are often less expensive, and they have a longer shelf life.
When deciding to purchase your carrier oils, look for cold-pressed, expeller-pressed, unrefined or virgin oil. These are the least processed oils. Depending on what you plan to use your oils for will have a bearing on your decision. Unrefined is the best for therapeutically effective facial products. Unrefined oils can be used for overall body products.
When using essential oils in my products, I want the aroma of the oils to be dominant. In this case, it is best to use refined carrier oils as the aroma is less dominant.
A Quick List
1. Allanblackia floribunda Butter
The Allanblackia butter is a genus of flowering plant in the Clusiaceae family. There are five species. It has similar characteristics to Shea butter, and meets the stringent outlines set by the cosmetic industry. The heated oil extracted from the seeds is used as a liniment to treat rheumatism, rubbed into sore joints, or dabbed on wounds and rashes. The butter can be used alone or in products. Internally, it's been used in Africa to treat hypertension. Try the following blend with anti-inflammatory and analgesic essential oils known to be effective of joint and muscle pain:
· One-ounce Allanblackia butter
· 6 drops of Siberian Fir Abies sibirica
· 3 drops of Juniper Berry Juniperus communis
· 2 drops of Lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus
· 4 drops Lavender Lavendula angustifolia
Blend your essential oils. Add the oils to the butter and mix well. Apply to achy joints 3-4 times a day. Store in closed glass container.
2. Almond Prunus amygdalus var. dulcis Oil
Almond oil, known as Sweet Almond, is cold pressed, subsequently refined then mixed with a soft Shea stearine. It assists with protecting the moisture of the dermis. Almond oil contains minerals and vitamins including A, B1, B2, B6 and Vitamin E. Sweet Almond is an emollient and has sclerosant properties. Based on research, it’s shown to ease itching from dry skin, smooth and rejuvenate the skin, as well as treat psoriasis and eczema. Almond is especially effective on dry, aging skin. Wonderful on burns and inflammation. I find this works best as a base oil.
Try in the following recipe with sweet almond at 40% and Black Currant oil at 60%. Or use the carrier of your choice.
Skin Healing Oil
· One-Ounce Carrier oil
· 4 drops Carrot seed oil
· 3 drops Bergamot Citrus bergamia
· 4 drops Palmarosa Cymbopogon martini var. motia
· 4 drops Cedarwood Juniperus virginiana
· 3 drops Ho Wood Cinnamomun camphora ct linalool
Directions: Blend and apply as needed.
3. Aloe Vera
(See article Aloe Vera and Uses)
4. Apricot Prunus armeniaca Kernel Oil
Apricot kernel oil is cold pressed from the seeds of apricots. This carrier oil is a favorite of massage therapists, due to its fast absorption rate and many therapeutic properties. Its therapeutic properties include gentleness on inflamed, aging or sensitive skin.
When taken internally, it can help reduce cholesterol levels and help lower hypertension.
Apricot kernel has a suppressive action on 5alpha-Androst-16-en-3-one generated by microbial metabolism. What does this mean? Androsterone was the first human sex pheromone to be identified by researchers. It is found in many mammals, and in humans it is primarily found in sweat and can lead to unpleasant odors, especially in women. Apricot kernel was identified as one of the carriers to suppress androsterone. With this discovery, it would be an excellent addition to women’s deodorant products or used alone. Apricot kernel can also be used alone or in facial blends. Helichrysum and Frankincense essential oils are cicatrisant (skin healers) and work perfect in a facial serum. Try using Apricot as a base oil at 10-50%. This blends nicely with Grape seed oil.
Try the following to soothe your skin. Blend and apply on clean, dry skin.
· One-ounce Apricot Kernel CP (Cold pressed) oil
· 10 drops Helichrysum Italicum (Corsica)
· 5 drops Frankincense Boswellia sacra
*See “additional resources” below for research on the effects of Amygdaline, a component of Apricot Kernel & transplanted tumors in mice. *
4. Argan Prunis amygdalus var. dulcis Oil
Argan oil is cold pressed from the pits or kernels found in the fruit of a tree endemic to the calcareous semidesert Sous valley of southwestern Morocco. The oil produced is a beautiful light golden yellow. This is a wonderful, fast-absorbing carrier oil with many therapeutic benefits. Argan has shown the following therapeutic properties: Anti-inflammatory, barrier repair, relieves itchy dry skin, reduce tiny veins, wound healing and possibly effective on skin cancer. Argan is rich in protein and contain glucosides as well as vitamins A, B1, B2, B6 and vitamin E.
It has similar qualities to Sweet Almond in that it is great on all skin types, especially those prone to eczema or those with sensitive skin. I’ve used it successfully with Bergamot citrus bergamia essential oil in skin irritant formulas. It goes well with Cedarwood Juniperus virginiana essential oil for itchy, dry scalp.
Aside from topical, the benefits of ingesting Argan oil are quite remarkable. In a controlled clinical study, ingesting Argan oil showed the effectiveness on knee Osteoarthritis symptoms.
*Note: Unrefined carrier oils have a stronger aroma than refined carrier oils. *
5. Arnica Arnica Montana Oil
Arnica is an herbal tincture and is often applied externally on unbroken skin to treat sore muscles and joints as well as bruising, sprains and strains. Try making a salve for arthritic conditions. Arnica is a rubefacient meaning that it does it’s work by bringing more blood to the injured area causing a slight irritation. This is a normal reaction and part of the increasing healing process. However, Arnica has a high adverse reaction, especially with sensitive skin and is best used as a base oil. You can prepare it yourself or purchase Arnica oil.
This is my favorite way of using Arnica.
Arnica Salve with Plai
· 1/2 cup dried arnica (or purchase Arnica)
· 1 cup oil (olive oil works great)
· 1 oz. Beeswax
· 60 drops Plai Zingiber cassumunar
· 40 drops Balsam Fir Abies balsamea
· 10 drops Hemlock Tsuga canadensis
· 10 Norway Pine Pinus resinosa
· 10 Engleman Spruce Picea engelmanii
If you choose to make your own infused arnica, follow the infusing arnica steps.
Prepare an arnica infused oil. This involves covering the arnica with oil and allowing it to infuse. This can take 30 minutes to 6 weeks depending on the method you choose.
Once you have your arnica infused oil, place the 1 cup of arnica oil into a small saucepan and add 1 oz. of beeswax. Heat over low until the beeswax is melted. Stir to fully incorporate. Remove from heat and add essential oils.
Transfer your salve to a container of your choosing; mason jars work great. Allow salve to cool before covering with a lid.
Apply arnica salve to the affected area and massage into the skin. Remember arnica should not be used on open skin.
6. Avocado Persea Americana Oil
Avocado oil is an edible oil pressed from the fruit of the Persea Americana. Avocado oil is cold pressed from the flesh of avocados. Avocado oil contains minerals and vitamins A, B1, B2, B5 (Pantothenic acid), D, and E. Avocado also contains protein, lecithin and fatty acids and is high in gamma linoleic acid. Avocado has shown wound healing properties and possible anti-inflammatory properties. Avocado is a skin penetrator through the upper layers of skin. It smooths dry, damaged skin, eases eczema and improves elasticity of the skin. It works well as a 10% additive to other carrier oils. As noted above, Avocado oil is one of the oils with a stronger aroma. Although not unpleasant, it will dominate the aroma of your essential oils. Despite this, the therapeutic effect of the following blend is smoothing and healing to the skin. Avocado works well with other carrier oils.
Dry Skin Relief
· One-Ounce Avocado oil
· 4 drops Helichrysum Helichrysum italicum
· 4 drops Roman Chamomile Chamaemelum nobile
· 4 Patchouli Pogostemom cabin
Directions: After cleansing and drying skin, apply as needed.
7. Babassu Orbygnia speciosa Oil
This tree is native to Brazil, Indonesia and Malaysia. Babassu oil, also sometimes called babassu wax, is a creamy white solid when kept cool and turns into a pale-yellow liquid at 76 degrees F./24 degrees C.
Babassu acts as an emollient and anti-microbial agent. It is obtained by cold-pressing the Babassu nuts. It contains lauric acid which offers anti-microbial actions. When it in contact with the body, it melts immediately. It provides a shiny, soft and smooth feeling to the skin. Moreover, the melting process is accompanied by a slight cooling effect, which feels fresh on the skin.
Babassu is high in linolenic acids and is best used as an additive with other carriers. It’s often used in cosmetics and skin-care products. Using Babassu with Jojoba will help protect and heal the skin. The addition of essential oils that are also known for their antimicrobial properties will help to accelerate the healing actions of the Babassu oil.
· 1/4 -Ounce Babassu oil
· ¾ -Ounce Jojoba oil
· 4 drops Tea Tree Melaleuca alternifolia
· 5 drops Lavender Lavendula angustifolia
Blend. Use on clean dry skin to heal dry itchy skin.
8. Baobab Adansonia digitata L., Malvaceae seed Oil
Baobab oil is cold pressed from the seed of the baobab tree. Baobab is highly penetrating, deeply nourishing and softens dry, damaged skin. It is known to restore and re-moisturizes the epidermis. It’s great for hair, absorbing quickly.
Baobab improves the skin’s elasticity and is a cell re-generator. It helps to relieves eczema and psoriasis. It’s has anti-inflammatory properties and relieves discomfort from burns and regenerates the epithelial tissue quickly. It’s a stable oil and goes well with other carrier oil s in formulas. Baobab works as an antioxidant.
9. Borage Borago officinalis seed Oil
Borage, also known as a starflower, is an annual herb in the flowering plant family Boraginaceae. The oil is derived from the seeds of the plant. Borage oil contains high levels of the ω-6 series essential fatty acids that play an important part in the function and structure of the skin.
It’s high content of linolenic and linoleic acids is the highest source for GLA’s (gamma linoleic acid). It’s often taken internally to decrease cholesterol levels in the blood as well as assist with coronary heart disease, hypertension and diabetes. Borage is a great addition during “that time” of the month, assisting with symptoms of PMS as well as menopausal symptoms.
Topically, Borage has great regenerating properties which makes it quite effective on premature and damaged skin, psoriasis, and eczema. A study was done on 37 patients with infantile seborrheic dermatitis. The linoleic acid in borage oil contributed to its therapeutic actions against ISD. It was shown to normalize the skins barrier functionality. A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed to test clinical effects of undershirts coated with borage oil on children with Atopic Dermatitis (AD). In the group treated with borage oil, improvement showed with no side effects. Borage is best used as a 10% additive in your products.
Eczema Oil Treatment
· 1 teaspoon borage oil
· 1-ounce jojoba oil
· 2 drops Helichrysum Helichrysum italicum
· 6 drops Roman Chamomile Chamaemelum nobile
· 4 drops Geranium Pelargonium roseum x asperum
· 8 drops Lavender Lavendula angustifolia
Since "one shoe" does not fit all, using the same carrier oils, here is another great blend that has helped many.
· Above carrier oils
· 3 drops Oregano Origanum compactum
· 6 drops Roman Chamomile Chamaemelum nobile
· 3 drops Neroli Citrus aurantium var. amara
· 9 drops Sandalwood Santalum album
Blend and apply to area 3-4 times a day. The essential oils used are cicatrisant (skin healing) essential oils.
10. Calendula Calendula officinalis (CO2 extract, infused) Oil
Calendula contains salicylic acid, carotenoids and phytosterols. It’s a skin regenerator, anti-microbial, antiseptic, great for wound and skin healing (cicatrisant), varicose veins, skin infections, cuts, chapped skin and lips.
In a double-blind randomized controlled trial, women of reproductive age were tested using Calendula officinalis extract-based cream versus metronidazole on bacterial vaginosis. All symptoms, including vaginal itching and burning sensation, odor, dysuria, and dyspareunia, were relieved with no side effects. This gives women a holistic approach versus using synthetic products.
11. Coconut Cocos nucifera Oil
Coconut oil is one of the most commonly-used carrier oils. It is cold pressed from coconuts which are harvested from coconut trees. Unrefined coconut oil is composed of many FFAs (fatty acids) including lauric acid (49%), myristic acid (18%), palmitic acid (8%), caprylic acid (8%), capric acid (7%), oleic acid (6%), linoleic acid (2%), and stearic acid (2%).
Refined is mostly saturated fatty acids which is the closest to human sub-cutaneous fat and more compatible to the skin than vegetable oils. It’s a pure oil with no irritants present. Unrefined oil may contain irritants. Coconut oil has been found to be the best for wound caring and works well for conditioning, spot treatment for acne, and helps other carrier oils from going rancid which makes it a good carrier to add to your products. Cellular studies have shown that it is also anti-viral and anti-fungal. Because coconut is comedogenic, which means it can be clogging for some pores. Why some people and not everyone? Everyone’s chemistry is different and unique. Coconut oil can be used alone or as a soothing salve for the skin. Try the following beautiful skin loving recipe.
Homespun Soothing Salve
· 2-ounce Bees wax
· 2-ounce Jojoba wax
· 3-ounce Shea butter
· 2-ounce Coconut butter
· 81 drops essential oils (1%) *
1 teaspoon Frankincense Boswellic acid powder (can be purchased at https://desrosiersintl.com/collections/absolutes-co2s-other-extracts)
In a slow cooker, add and melt Bees wax. Once melted, add the jojoba wax. This will harden the bees wax a bit, but it will liquify again. Continue the same process with the Shea and Coconut butter. Once melted, turn off heat and add your skin friendly essential oils. Blend well and immediately add to glass jars and seal tightly. This tends to be a bit thick, more in line with a lip balm. To thin down, you could lower the Bees wax to perhaps 1-ounce.
*Try one or more of the following skin friendly essential oils in your product: Lavender Lavendula angustifolia, Juniper Berry Juniperus communis, Cedarwood Juniperus virginiana, Patchouli Pogostemom cablin, Roman Chamomile Chamaemelum nobile, Basil (sweet) Ocimum basilicum ct linalool, Carrot Seed Daucus carota, Sandalwood Santalum album or Santalum paniculatum (or Patchouli Pogostemom cablin), Helichrysum italicum and/or Frankincense Boswellia carterii.*
12. Grape seed Vitis vinifera Oil
Grape seed oil is a carrier oil that is often used in massage therapy. Grapeseed oil is extracted through hot extraction. Due to the small amount of oil in the seeds, a hot expeller technique is used. When oils are extracted using this method, the grapes are heat pressed to release the oil. There are no chemicals used in this process and it produces the best grape seed oil. There is another method called solvent extraction. Hexane is used to extract the oil from the seeds. However, this method leaves behind toxic residues.
Despite what you may have read, Grapeseed oil is not cold pressed.
Grapeseed contains a large amount of similar phenolic compounds, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, tannins, and stilbenes. Phenolic compounds are anti-oxidants. These compounds also play an important role in the oxidative stability of an oil. It contains linoleic acid, vitamins, minerals and protein. Grapeseed oil is odorless, a skin penetrator and good for all skin types. Grapeseed oil is a wound healer, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory. It has a light, sweet-nutty fragrance.
13. Jojoba Simmondsia chinensis Oil
Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is a long-lived, drought resistant, perennial plant Jojoba
(pronounced hohoba) oil is used often in skin care products. It offers a nice skin barrier and is often used in
cosmetic products. It has a high content of wax esters. It’s anti-inflammatory, anti-aging and
used for various skin infections and issues. Jojoba is a good choice to repair the skin from
dermatitis, eczema, AD and acne. It’s has a high oxidative stability which keeps the oil from
going rancid. Jojoba is often used for topical absorption of drugs.
But, with all its benefits, it can be clogging. It is, after all, a wax. For acne, the perfect blend with Jojoba is Hazelnut kernel Corylus avellana oil which is great in controlling acne.
Acne Spot Treatment
· One-ounce Jojoba Oil/Hazelnut oil
· 4 drops Tea Tree Melaleuca alternifolia
· 2 drops Geranium Pelatgonium roseum x asperum
· 2 drops Patchouli Pogostemom cablin
· 4 drops Helichrysum Helichrysum italicum
Blend. Store in a skirt bottle for best results. Using a cotton ball, apply to area, especially after cleansing and before bed. It is a light, golden-yellow color and doesn’t have much of an odor.
*You can mix your carrier oils and, in fact, some make better base oils and compliment other carrier oils. *
14. Kpangnan (pronounced Pawnya)
Kpangnan is remarkably more moisturizing than Shea butter and when applied to the skin, it has a slight warming effect on the skin. Studies have found that Kpangnan contains a high amount of stigmasterol, an unsaturated plant sterol that contains anti- inflammatory and pain-relieving agents. Organic and unrefined will give you the best butter for skin preparations. As soon as it is refined it changes its wonderful skin healing properties. The butter should be hard and yellow.
15. Marula oil (wild crafted)
Marula serves as a fantastic carrier oil and is beautiful with a delicate aroma and light-yellow color. Rich in oleic acid, Marula is hydrating and can help increase epidermal smoothness. Known to protect and nourishes the skin, good for oily skin and hair, relieves Dermatitis, Eczema, and Psoriasis. It helps heal sunburns, and chapped/irritated skin. It’s a great anti-oxidant and can be used around the eye area for fine line treatment. It’s got antibacterial action - used to treat wounds and burns and has free-radical scavenging properties.
16. Neem AKA Indian Lilac
Anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, fungicide, conditioning, restores skin, antiseptic, and insecticide, great for Psoriasis, skin diseases, herpes, allergies, itching and sunburns. Neem has many benefits, but also has a very strong scent that can over power the scent of an essential oil. It's best known for its anti-aging properties. Due to its antioxidant properties, neem protects the skin from harmful UV rays, pollution and other environmental factors. The vitamins and fatty acids in Neem improve and maintain the elasticity of the skin, reduce wrinkles and fine lines.
17. Olive Olea europaea Oil (Virgin pressed)
Olive oil comes from the fruits of Olea europaea trees. It consists mainly of oleic acid, some fatty acids such as linoleic and palmitic acid. Olive oil contains phenolic compounds, with Hydrolic phenols being the highest percent and the most abundant anti-oxidants in olive oil, higher than vitamin E. Olive oil has anti-inflammatory properties, wound healing properties, acne, bruising and insect bites as well as having a positive effect on skin cell regeneration.
Olive oil contains protein, minerals and vitamins. For rheumatic type conditions, you can use alone or as a 10-50% additive.
Skin Wound and Healing Oil
One-Ounce Olive Oil
· 6 drops Helichrysum Corsica italicum
· 4 drops Myrrh Commiphora myrrha
· 4 drops German Chamomile Matricaria recutita
· 4 drops Frankincense Boswellia carterii
Directions: Rub on closed wound 3-4 times a day, especially on clean dry skin and before bed. Note: This is a 2% blend. For short term and acute wounds, you can go from 5-10% blend. Always start low and find your healing threshold. By starting at a 2% for the first week, you can get a better gauge on your body’s healing progression. Depending on the extent of the wound, it can take several weeks to heal.
*Safety Alert: If pregnant, leave out Myrrh Commiphora myrrha. Myrrh is contraindicated for pregnancy and breastfeeding, due to its components (constituents) β-elemene and furanodiene content, which may be fetotoxic. *
18. Pomegranate Seed Oil:
Pomegranate seed oil is cold pressed from the seeds of the plant. Because of the high content of fatty acids, the Pomegranate oil is a great anti-Inflammatory as well as a skin re-generator, moisturizing, and excellent for dry, damaged and aged skin. It's nourishing and protective to the skin.
Most promising, pomegranate seed oil has been shown as a potential safe and effective agent against skin cancer.
19. Rose Hip Rosa canina L. Oil
One of my favorite carrier oils, Rose hip oil is extracted from the seeds. It’s high content of linoleic acid, anywhere from 35-55%, makes it especially therapeutic on the skin. Rose hip oil has a high content of UFAS (unsaturated fatty acids), highest content fatty acid being linoleic acid at around 35-55% with a-linolenic acid and oleic acid following.
Rose hip oil is a wonderful anti-oxidant and has anti-inflammatory that have shown effective on eczema, burns, bruises, ulcers, neuro dermatitis and other inflammatory skin issues. You can use as a 10% additive or for aging, dry skin, use Rose hip oil alone. It heals and absorbs nicely into the skin.
20. Shea Butter
Shea butter comes from the nut of the Vitellaria paradoxa or Shi tree and is the only species of its kind and is indigenous to Africa. Shea feels elegant to the skin, anti-inflammatory and great at easing symptoms of eczema. Shea moisturizes dry itchy skin, is anti-aging. It has shown to ease irritation from shaving and help reduce stretch marks. Study shows that Shea was as effective as a prescribed cleanser and cream for eczema.
21. Tamanu Oil
Treating scars, stretch marks (fades stretch marks with great results), minor wounds, skin irritations, rashes, bedsores and many other skin concerns. promotes new tissue formation, accelerating healing and healthy skin growth, is an anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and anti-fungal. In addition, Tamanu oil has properties that make it stand out from other lipid because it has the ability to be able to affect nerve conditions through the skin. We don’t find this in other fatty oils which makes it so unique. It is thick, but it’s not a saturated butter. Its thick consistency is from a property of glycolipids (starches attached to lipids) that are unusual in the nature of oils. It even has a percentage of a unique fatty acid called Caulophyllic acid that adds a uniqueness to this oil’s ability to help us treat a variety of skin issues.
22. Trauma Oil
Combination of Organic or Wildcrafted St. John's Wort, Organic or Organically grown Calendula, Organic or wild-crafted Arnica. It’s been known to reduce the pain of injury, relieve swelling and promote healing of muscles, tendons, and ligaments, Perfect for healing bruises, Eases sore and achy muscles, Nerve pain such as sciatica, as a massage oil for especially sore areas.
Watermelon Seed Oil (WSO) is a very nourishing yet light oil with good absorption. It is a good choice for use with oily skin but can be effective with all skin types. Its viscosity, mild aroma and indefinite shelf life make it a good all-purpose carrier oil for use in aromatherapy. It’s great for acne prone skin and gentle and nourishing to aging skin and adds elasticity back to the skin. This is a great summer time oil. Try using an ounce of watermelon seed oil with 18 drops of Helichrysum italicum essential oil. Your skin will love it.
Was this list helpful to you? Select a carrier oil that will enhance your blend. Don’t be afraid to experiment with carrier oils. Find the one that suites your needs. By following the references, it will lead to more carrier oils for you to choose from.
Was this list helpful to you? Select a carrier oil that will enhance your blend. Don’t be afraid to experiment with carrier oils. Find the one that suites your needs. By following the references, it will lead to more carrier oils for you to choose from. Please like, share and leave your comment. Thank you kindly-Rehne
*Note: Several references lead to the same research publication on multiple carrier oils. Additional resources have also been provided.
Resources and Reference
Tisserand, R. and Young, R. (2007) Essential oil safety; A guide for health care professionals (2 Nd Ed.). NY: Churchill Livingston; VOCs; pgs. 100-101
Sheppard-Hanger, Sylla; The Aromatherapy Practitioner Manual, Vegetal Oils & Additives, pg. 43
Sheppard-Hanger, Sylla; The Aromatherapy Practitioner Manual, Vegetal Oils % Additives, pg. 42 Borage
Coconut Oil; http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/19/1/70/htm
Grapeseed Oil; http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/19/1/70/htm
Jojoba Oil; http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/19/1/70/htm
Olive Oil; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5796020/
Sheppard-Hanger, Sylla; The Aromatherapy Practitioner Manual, Vegetal Oils & Additives, pg. 47
Tisserand, R. and Young, R. (2007) Essential oil safety; A guide for health care professionals (2 Nd Ed.). NY: Churchill Livingston; Myrrh; pg. 357
Rose Hip Oil: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18384191
Anti-Inflammatory and Skin Barrier Repair Effects of Topical Application of Some Plant Oils https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5796020/
Effects of Amygdaline from Apricot Kernel on Transplanted Tumors in Mice. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27021084
Effects of Babassu oil, olive oil and water on the skin. http://www.mdpi.com/2079-9284/4/3/32
Nutritional Value of Baobab oil. http://www.mdpi.com/2304-8158/6/7/54
Wax Esters (Inc. Jojoba Esters) http://aem.asm.org/content/78/16/5734.full.pdf+html?sid=fc65153b-028e-45b5-a461-131a728888b1
Borage oil for atopic dermatitis https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20579590